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Laboratory Technology

E-SPART ANALYZER EST-G Particle Size and Electrostatic Charge Distribute Analysis

Fig. E-spart Analyzer EST-G

Fig. E-spart Analyzer EST-G

Summary

The E-spart Analyzer can simultaneously measure the particle size distribution and the electrostatic charge distribution by tracing the particle motion by laser Doppler technology in the electric with oscillating acoustic field. A particle is electrically charged by the collision, friction, contact to other substance, although there are differences in scale. The charging procedure is closely related to various phenomena in particle. However, the charging mechanism has not yet found out enough. One of the reasons is that a particle’s charging phenomena easily changes by its environment and unstable phenomena, also, it was difficult to measure the charge amount of each particle. On the other hand, recently the action to develop high value-added powder becomes popular with the advancement of technology of electrophotography, powder paint, electronic paper or spacer for semiconductor. It is not only the bulk charge amount but also by grasping the particles’ charge distribution and controlling the particle charge amount. The E-spart Analyzer is the only equipment which can analyze simultaneously the particle’s charge distribution on particle size.
("E-SAPRT ANALYZER" is a registered trademark of HOSOKAWA MICRON CORPORATION in Japan)

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Principle

Fig.1 Feeder for mono component toner

Fig.2 Feeder for dual component toner

Fig.3 Principle

The specially designed feeder charges the sample downward into the measuring chamber with aspiration air (Fig.3). There is a set of direct current electrode facing each other in the measuring zone and a speaker locates one side as shown in Fig.3. The particle falls down horizontally vibrates in acoustic field. If the particle has electrostatic charge, it shifts to the electrode with reverse polarity in the measuring chamber. The particle motion affected by these fields is independent. It can measure simultaneously the particle size from the effect of acoustic field and electrostatic charge from the electric field. This equipment measures the particle size when the particle comes in the region where projects dual laser beams intersect. The optical system analyzes the phase lag ɸ between the particle motion and air oscillating by laser Doppler velocimeter. The phase lag is large for large particle, because large particle delays from the air oscillating due to its large inertia force. Equation 1 shows the relationship between phase lag and particle size Dp.

Eq. 1

Fig.4 Schematic of measuring method – particle size

where, ρp : Particle density ,Cc: coefficient of Cunningham correction factor, η: Air viscosity, ω: Acoustic field frequency

On the other hand, Equation 2 gives the electrostatic charge q from the intensity of electric field E , horizontal velocity ve. and particle size obtained from Eq. 1

Eq. 2

Fig.5 Schematic of measuring method - charge

Features

• The E-spart Analyzer measure simultaneously size and charge of each particle in real time base. This equipment gives both distribution of particle size and electrostatic charge amount measurable. It is different from conventional Blow-off method of which output is only total electrostatic charge per unit weight (μC/g)
• Applicable for mono-component toner.
Newly developed special feeder enables the measurement of installed toner cartridge, and it can measure toner on rotor or photoreceptor. Both types of toner (Mono-component magnetic and non-magnetic) are possible to measure.
• Enhanced software.
Newly improved software is correspond to 3-dimensional analysis of particle size and charge, the ratio of counter polarity, ratios of weak charge, and output of text data.
• Adapt to simple environmental test laboratory.
Applicable for the operation in semi-tropical climate from 10°C to 40°C with relative humidity from 10 to 85%.
• Measurement fine toner.
The E-spart Analyzer can measure the micro toner by improving the retention time of toner and preventing career from dropping by increasing the magnetism of dual-component feeder by 30%.

Fig.6 Particle size distribution

Fig.7 Charge distribution expressed by q/d

Fig.8 Charge distribution expressed by q

Fig.9 3-dimensional analysis, expressed by 3D scatter diagram

Fig.10 3-dimensional analysis, expressed by 3D scatter diagram

3D evaluation software for E-SAPRT analyzer

Applications

• Product development and quality control of photocopy toners and copy machines.
R&D engineers and quality control have been using the E-spart Analyzer for an examination of the particle size and electrostatic charge amount,
The E-spart Analyzer also determines the optimal agitating condition in the copier where toner is mixed with career for moderate charging.
• E-spart Analyzer for quality control of the particle which is used in an electric field, such as electric paper.

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Specifications

Table 1 Specifications

Fig.11 Electrograph

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